Why Costa Rica? This little country – the size of Denmark – is gorgeous. It has tropical rainforests, cloud forests, the deep and wild Pacific, the warm Caribbean, exhilarating rivers, violent volcanoes, indigenous people, Latino culture, surfers, cowboys…. and it’s the happiest place on Earth.
I am interested in how humans are changing our planet through our culture and technologies, and the effects of those changes on us. We’re living at an exceptional time. The changes we humans have made in recent decades have altered our world beyond anything it’s experienced in it’s 4.5-billion-year history. As a result, our planet is entering a new geological age that scientists are calling the Anthropocene, the age of humans. What will the Anthropocene be like? Will it be good or bad? I travelled around the world to explore this, and wrote a book about my Adventures In The Anthropocene.
Costa Rica offers us an window into a rather appealing version of our Anthropocene. This is a developing country that got rid of its military to instead fund a universal healthcare and education programme; that is growing its economy rapidly whilst also protecting its environment; and that consistently ranks top in the global happiness index. Pretty remarkable.
But what’s most remarkable is that a few decades ago, Costa Rica was a very different country. Poor, struggling with violence and caught in international drugs wars, this was once one of the most deforested nations in the region. A visionary president with courage and ambition helped turn it around. Now, an emphasis on nature and conservation means that Costa Rica protects more than 25% of its land and half of its coastline, it runs its national grid almost entirely (99%) on renewables, and vast tree-planting make it the only tropical country to have reversed deforestation. By 2021, the President tells me, the country will be carbon neutral.
This is a country that chose what sort of Anthropocene it wanted and set out to deliver it. An extraordinary and inspiring story obviously made for television!
Making a television series was not so obvious.
I teamed up with producers Brian Hill and Katie Bailiff at Century Films in London, who make beautiful documentaries about social and environmental issues – a perfect fit. We worked on an idea and presented it to Channel 4, where Ralph Lee shared our vision and enthusiasm and commissioned it to become part of a manmade planet season. So exciting!
Making TV documentaries takes a team of people doing long hours of hard graft to produce something that is effortless to view. Key to this magic is the director, and I lucked out with the formidable Irish bear that is Eoin O’Shea, who had the talent and creative ambition to take a rough idea (and rougher presenter) and produce a coherent 3-part narrative. The talented producer Holly Moy and veteran Bristolian Si Wagen, master of exquisite camerawork, also travelled out from London to San José with us. The rest of the team – soundman Erick Vargas Williams, production assistant Ana Lucia Arias and data manager Saul Garcia – were locals, helping keep the series a more authentic portrayal of the country.
It was hard work at times, especially as I travelled out with Nick and our 1-year-old and 3-year-old. There were plenty of sleepless nights (she’s only recently started sleeping through the night – hallelujah!), and times when I had to leave them for several days. Filming days were long and hard and stressful. I’m used to being in control of my work and my schedule, and it was difficult to relinquish that. But it was never boring, and it was never meaningless. It was often exciting, and a chance to explore an amazing country and people, and some truly fascinating stories with a team of brilliant fun people that have become my friends.
I hope you enjoy watching it.
If, like me, you wake everyday with a stone of foreboding in your belly, check the news to discover the world is a little worse, and stumble through your day under the heaviest pall of despair, then you’re not having the best 2017 either – I’m sorry.
Is this a new Dark Ages, this deliberate political, cultural, societal regression?
I’m sure there have been a thousand analyses of how we got into this darkly farcical horror show – and I mean the Trump presidency and Brexit disasters specifically, rather than the continuing awfulness happening to people Yemen, Syria, Nigeria, etc etc – but to be honest, one of my few comforts at the moment is my social bubble made up of kind, intelligent people who are also appalled by this new “post-fact”, mean era.
So what hope, can I give? And, yes, there is always hope!
Even though these recent political changes in Britain and the US will hurt people (generally the most vulnerable) and local environments, around the world nations are already committed to developing clean energy, to environmental protection and conservation, to curbing pollution and recognising women’s and minority rights. Certainly there is a long way to go, but in general, poverty is going down, and there is ever greater recognition that we need to protect our shared environment. For example, China has just cancelled several coal power stations that had already been commissioned; globally, new power generation from renewables is now greater than from fossil fuels; the world’s largest marine park was protected in Antarctica last year by the EU and 24 countries. This momentum will continue, I think, in spite of anti-science policy in the US.
And, we should not overestimate the power of governments. They move slow and dull in a fast world. I have seen for myself countless examples of remarkable individuals, communities, organisations, and businesses that make an extraordinary difference to the everyday lives of others. In our networked, global world, such people can only have greater power.
Feel free to cheer me up with your words of hope and inspiration 🙂
This was a fun programme to make on the origins of human culture for Discovery on BBC World Service – have a listen.
We arrive in Costa Rica’s capital, San José, hours before a hurricane is forecast to hit the nation. The government orders the evacuation of vulnerable towns and villages, coastal communities are urged to seek shelter, and internal flights are put on a wait-and-see basis.
We decide to make the next leg of the journey by road, driving west through the highlands to the Pacific coast of the Nicoya peninsula. We rent a bungalow in a scrubby patch of jungle not far from a beautiful crescent beach near Nosara, and settle the kids into their new home.
When the rains are light or cease, we fill their days with jungle strolls and beach walks, listen to howler monkeys roar and watch them prance through the trees, find iguanas and humming birds, hawks and pelicans, and all types of insect. We eat tropical fruits, rambutan and tamarind, papaya and mango, pineapple and banana. We feast on hearty casados – plates of fish, rice, beans, vegetables and sauces.
Further north, life is less idyllic. Hurricane Otto has smashed through the country from the Caribbean to the Pacific, the first tropical cyclone to cross the nation since records began, and the most southerly ever to hit Central America. At least ten people have lost their lives, with many more missing, and more than 3,000 remain evacuated. Flash floods washed away houses, roads and livestock. Some areas have been devastated, with more than a month’s rainfall pounding infrastructure in just a few hours. The cleanup will cost millions. People from around the country are pulling together to help with the relief effort – President Solis has declared three days of mourning for the victims. Less helpful are the morbid hurricane tourists, who are driving to the area to take selfies with destruction, adding to the chaos.
This hurricane was unusual. It was very late in the season, making this one of the longest on record, and it was the first to strike Costa Rica. Weather can be strange and unpredictable, but Otto also forms part of a recent trend in more intense tropical storms. The world’s oceans have absorbed the vast majority of the global warming that humans have produced over the past decades as we release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As the oceans become warmer and more energetic, so do the storms they stir up. And as sea levels rise, these intense storms can do more damage to our human world – destroying our infrastructure, livelihoods and even our lives.
One of the reasons I have come to Costa Rica is to look at how this small nation is managing the challenge of producing energy we all need for economic and social development while maintaining its important natural ecosystems. What is already very clear, is that in these changing times – in the Anthropocene – we need to plan for unpredictable, violent weather.
Went to sleep to the sound of gecko kisses; woke to the roar of howler monkeys. Wonderful.
It’s been a while but we’re off adventuring again. We’re leaving london for a few months to explore Costa Rica and this time there will be four of us.
Yes, since our last big journey, I’ve given birth to a book and two small humans. In that time, the world has come together to try to address our climate change challenges, which is a hugely significant step and a cause for optimism.
However, despite this collaborative step, nations are regressing into isolationist nationalism. There is a rise in extremism in formerly moderate countries and with it a rise in prejudice and hate directed at women, minority groups, people with darker skin or different accents.
We are far more similar than we are different – genetically we are almost identical and of a mixed tapestry of interwoven origins. But that is science and, as we are being continually told, we now live in a post-truth world. The man elected to become one of most powerful in the world, Donald Trump, and his powerful friends seem to revel in undermining science and our understanding of earth systems and the natural world, and in destroying the achievements humanity has made towards respecting each other despite our differences.
This shocks and profoundly worries me. I want to continue to believe that we share values of human decency towards each other, to protecting human rights and the environment we share. Time will tell.
In the meantime, the planet continues to be transformed under our influence. In the Anthropocene (the Age of Humans) we face significant challenges and we need strong leadership to captain us into a world of some 9 billion people, limited resources and an unstable climate. This is an extraordinary time. The decisions we make now will affect the planet for centuries to come.
On the urgent to-do list is: climate change, extinctions, freshwater loss, and more. None of these can be addressed in isolation, and none without looking at the root cause of the problem: us. Social issues are entirely enmeshed in our environmental problems. Happily, the solution to one can very often be the solution to the other. It is only by understanding and meeting our human needs in concert with the natural world that we will find palatable solutions for our problems.
So I’m off to Costa Rica to look at how this small but fascinating country is meeting our shared global challenges.
Between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, in the heart of Central America, this little nation has been running a socio-environmental experiment, aiming to protect and nurture its natural resources, as well as the health and wellbeing of its people – and that requires a healthy economy. Can it be done?
I’m heading off to the land of rainforest and cloud forest, volcanoes and waterfalls, sloths and whales, to find out. And I’m bringing my two young children. I want them to discover a different world from london, where people eat different foods, speak another language, and where nature dominates much of the country. I want them to have new experiences but I’m also conscious that it may be their last chance to see some of this bountiful nature. They will never know the incomparable coral reefs of my childhood, it is too late for that. But for the many creatures and plants that are on the edge of extinction, it is not yet too late.
Most of all, though, it is their generation that will inherit this planet. I want them to value its diversity, to know what we all stand to lose, to see that there are different ways of living, of producing energy and food, and different ways of being happy.
This time some of our adventures will be filmed, and I don’t mean my amateur attempts at using video – we’ll be meeting up with a television crew out there to make something beautiful and meaningful, I hope.
I don’t know what we’ll find, there will be inspiration, disappointment and everything in between. But I know it’ll be interesting.
I’ll try to post updates here, so do join us!
Imagine if every online news article, feature, interview, column, video or slideshow had a click-to-read button – like the click-to-share buttons (for Twitter and Facebook) or the RSS feed button. This simple button would charge you a tiny read fee, perhaps 5 pence/cents for standard article, as much as £$1.50 for in-depth mixed media content.
Daily use could be capped at a chosen amount, say £$5, after which an additional security click would be required. Users could top up their read-fee accounts by direct debit or with regular payments, along the Skype or PayPal models, or with contactless payment system.
The system would, of course, require all media outlets to sign up to it – and institutions like the BBC with its licence fee and other public/charitable bodies mightn’t be able to – but this seems to me the only viable way to maintain quality journalism, in-depth trusted reporting from knowledgeable correspondents into the coming decades.
Because, I don’t think people have a problem with paying for journalism; they have a problem with the bureaucracy it currently entails: registering, filling forms, entering bank and other personal details. It’s a faff and, because of that, most people would rather not bother climbing a paywall.
This one-button, simple system – like the tap of an Oyster card, the click of an Amazon payment button – means there is a just one-off registration system to read whatever you want.
The readfee system would always offer the first, say, 30-50 words for free. This would act like a teaser for longer articles on the journal site or on aggregators and social media, like Facebook, and provide enough news for scanning eyes. I anticipate that the real payout would be for exclusives and feature length content. Ads could be dispensed with entirely or adopted into the new system.
Micropayment systems are, of course, not new – they have been proposed in the past and several are already in use (this system shows success). But they fall down for two reasons, because they are not universal and they are not simple enough to use – they may require a separate browser, for example.
This is why I propose a universally adopted one-button payment system.
Media houses could be in charge of their own article rates – I expect that market forces would lead them to standardise fairly quickly. Special offers and other enticements could be agreed within the button operating rules. But, the rules should agree a minimum payment, even if it is as little as tuppence. The button would display the number (price) of the article.
Now, all we need is for the first news organisations to sign up – come on, are times not bad enough!